Operating systemsm23 supports:
m23 supports Debian, Ubuntu, Kubuntu, Xubuntu, Fedora, Linux Mint, CentOS and openSUSE. The choice of the Linux distribution is a matter of taste and a question of the functional range. m23 gives the administrator the chance to choose the right distribution for each client individually which can be installed automatically. m23 allows to manages all clients via the same m23 administration interface, no matter which distribution is installed.
Free partitioning and formatting
In addition to the automatic partitioning and formatting, m23 supports individual harddrive setups. The resulting partitions can be used for the operating system, to store data and for swapping. The m23 interface includes all necessary functions for deleting, adding and formatting of partitions and for assigning them to mountpoints, installation or swap usage. In addition, it is possible to reuse the existing partition layout for the installation.
Support for software RAIDs
Partitions or entire harddrives can be combined into software RAIDs. m23 supports the RAID levels 0, 1, 4, 5, 6 and 10. These RAID levels have advantages and disadvantages in relation to speed increase and data reliability. RAIDs can be used like normal partitions to install operating systems to or to use them as swap or storage space. You can install the Linux kernel and its modules on a separate (non-RAID) partition to be able to install an operating system on all possible RAID levels.
User management with LDAP
User accounts can be managed with a central LDAP server. This increases the ease of use in environments with many clients and a lot of users. The OpenLDAP server is shipped with the m23 server and can be administered via the highly integrated phpLDAPadmin. m23 can use existing LDAP entries for new m23 clients or add extra entries on adding an m23 client.
NFS for storing home directoriesAn NFS server for storing the user's home directories is a good supplement to an existing LDAP server. Using an NFS server simplifies the making of backups dramatically in contrast to a lot of clients storing the home directories on local harddrives. As a benefit of this combination the user has the alternative to log in into any client and find her or his own desktop and files.
Thousands of software packages like office packages, graphic tools, server applications or games can be installed via the webinterface. Software installation or removal jobs are carried out at boot time or while the client is in normal use.
Graphical desktopsSupport for:
The m23 clients can be installed as workstation with the graphical user interfaces KDE, Gnome, XFce, LXDE and pure X11 or as a server without graphical subsystem. In most server setups, the server doesn't need a user interface because most of the server software runs in text mode. If you choose the Ubuntu distribution you can also install Unity, for Linux Mint Mate or Cinnamon and for Kubuntu "Kubuntu desktop" (KDE based).
Imaging: Installation using image filesAn image file of a partition or entire harddisk can be used to install other clients. These image files are taken from installed clients with all their software packages and settings. The creation of these image files is included in the m23 administration interface for your comfort. Image files can be compressed to save storage space and bandwidth on rollout. An image file can be used to install any number of clients. After the end of the transfer, the client will be adjusted like a client that was installed from software packages. This is done on Debian, Ubuntu, Kubuntu and Xubuntu clients. These "image clients" can be managed like "normal clients" with m23, this includes software installation and other administrative tasks.
Personal data and additional settings can be backupped and restored with the integrated software BackupPC. This is necessary for all personal data which is not handled by m23.
A client can be reinstalled with excactly the same software selection and configuration as it was installed with m23 before. This is done with the recovery feature directly from the m23 interface. The recovery includes the complete installation with partitioning and formatting. All settings done with m23 will be restored. Manual changes need a recovery from a backup medium.
The m23 rescue system is a minimal Linux environment that can be booted on the clients via the network. You can use it for on-location maintenance or via an SSH console. The administrator has full access to the client and can do all administrative work. Additional tools (e.g. the client log) support the administrator with his/her fault analysis.
The free virtualisation solution VirtualBox OSE is now (optional) part of m23 and can be installed directly on the m23 server as well as on the managed m23 clients. Required for virtualisation is a current Debian system (Debian Lenny or Squeeze). Virtual m23 clients which act on the network just like normal m23 clients are managed via the m23 server as usual. These virtual clients can be partitioned and formatted like a normal PC and of course the operating system and additional software can be installed as well.
VirtualBox OSE packages are available for 32 and 64 bit machines, that can be installed directly via the m23 web interface on the m23 clients. These m23 clients are virtualisation hosts for virtual m23 clients after the installation. Virtualisation may be useful to use the existing ressources of your computers better (e.g. office PCs that usually wait for user input most of the time or on a web server).
You can check the usage of harddisk and memory on the virtualisation host in the "VM creation dialog" before you create a new virtual m23 client. So you can take care not to assign too much harddisk space or memory to the VM. The newly created VM runs through the usual 3-step-setup after the creation is done.
Virtual m23 clients can run in graphical mode or without visible output. A modified VNC server was integrated for the graphical output to replace the VRDP feature of the non-free VirtualBox edition. It can be used to access the virtual clients from the boot on and allows to engage if problems occur. The VNC session contains the VirtualBox window with the running virtual m23 client and is based on the lightweight window manager flwm. An analog clock, a terminal and a button to shut down the session together with the VirtualBox machine are visible too.
The m23 interface and the entire m23 system can be improved with extra functions.
The MDK (m23 Development Kit) is a powerful environment to adjust m23 to your needs. E.g. you can create your own m23 server installation CD or build new network boot images with new modules.
Using the m23 extension halfSister, the ambitious administrator can easily make his or her favourite Linux distribution installable with m23, like it was already done with CentOS, openSUSE and Fedora.
How does it work?
m23 differentiates between servers and clients. An m23 server is used for software deployment and the management of the clients. Computers which are administered by the m23 server are the clients.
The client is booted over the network during the installation of the operating system. It is possible to start the client with a bootrom on its network card, with a boot disk or with a boot CD. The client's hardware is detected and set up. The gathered hardware and partition information is sent to the m23 server. Afterwards, this information is shown in the m23 administration interface. Now the administrator has to choose how to partition and format the client. Other settings include e.g. the distribution to be installed on the client.
A GPG key management was integrated into the m23 webinterface, too. After a data fault the restore script will first install an "empty" m23 server and use the backup to bring it into a previously saved state. A short guide showing the restoring steps can be printed out directly from the m23 web interface (and should be before an emergency occurs!).
A variable firewall makes sure that only safe values will be handed to the database. This should make SQL injection attacs impossible.
The IP management allows you to connect network settings to a MAC address, so that the necessary values are sent to the respective device via DHCP. Aside from this direct assignment, IP ranges can be defined, within which the IPs can be assigned dynamically (e.g. to notebooks). Specific settings (e.g. client name, MAC address) or specific IP ranges can now be blocked, so m23 cannot wrongly use these for m23 clients.
Copyright and usage notice for this textYou are allowed to use this text entirely, partly or in a modified form (e.g. for a press article or for product description in CD shops).
This text is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License. And of course we would be very happy, if we got a copy of your article or a URL where to find it ;-)
In this year's Thomas-Krenn Open Source Förderung (Thomas-Krenn Open Source promotion), the m23 project has ended in the third place :-) At this point, we would like to thank Thomas-Krenn again for the prize and congratulate the other winner projects.
For our prize money, we compiled a selection of hardware from Thomas-Krenn, which we want to use for being able to execute a whole bunch of virtual client installations at the same time. In the long term, we are planning to automate most Tests using the newly introduced test framework "AutoTest", to avoid doing all those tests manually, which was the case until now. We hope to spend less time on manual testing and at the same time to be able to expose a larger range of functions to continuous testing.
We will publish a small report on the new hardware after having tested it extensively.
Our sincere thanks are given to Thomas-Krenn and, of course, to our users for their support :-)
The latest version of m23 extends the spectrum of supported client distributions by adding support for Ubuntu 14.04 LTS and Linux Mint 17 Qiana. For Linux Mint, the desktop environments Mate, Cinnamon, Xfce and KDE are available - for Ubuntu, there are a minimal KDE/Kubuntu Desktop, Unity (3D), Xfce, the Lubuntu Desktop and Gnome.
Even while adding support for the two new distributions - and especially the desktops - accounts for most of the time needed to build this new release, there have also been made other improvements to m23. Among these you will find the improved user authentification by LDAP or the new testing framework "AutoTest" which automatically checks the m23 server installation ISOs.
LDAPFrom this m23 version on LDAP users (on clients with Debian 7.x, Ubuntu 14.04 and Linux Mint 17) will automatically be added to the local groups to which local users would also be added. This ensures that users logged in via LDAP can also access the client's resources (for example the sound card). Also, when adding an LDAP user via the m23 interface, the corresponding LDAP group is created or the user is added to the group with the number of the admin's choice.
AutoTestAutoTest is a new framework which was developed to automate repetitive testing tasks (which occur before the release of a new m23 version). Currently, it does not yet contain all the features we have planned, but it's enough to install the m23 server installation ISO on a virtual machine in VirtualBox without any user action. AutoTest defines the parts of a testing process using an XML file. Each part consists of a trigger event (for example a sequence of letters on the VM's screen), one or more actions (for example emulated keyboard strokes) and the following comparison with letter sequences on the screen which signal success, warnings or fatal results of that action. The output picture on the VM's screen is interpreted using the gocr character recognition.
The test definition file also contains the parameters used to create the VM (for example RAM and hard disk size). A test can be executed on a local machine (on the same computer with the same user as the one starting AutoTest) as well as on a remote machine (in a running X- or X2go-session).
Future versions of AutoTest will also allow to automagically test the m23 web interface, for example to add a new client and install it.
m23 command line interfaceThe m23 command line tool (m23cli) was extended by four features: It can now output the contents of a package sources list and a client's MAC address. One m23cli plugin lists all clients' IP addresses in one group. Another one checks if the clients can be accessed by network.
Odds and endsDebian based clients now do a "dist-upgrade" after the installation of the base system to update the software which is in the compressed operating system archive. If the hardware detection cannot find a harddisk (either because the driver module is missing or because there really is no harddisk), an error message in the partitioning dialogue in the m23 interface now alerts the user and stops further setup of the client. The recovery method "Set status to "Add"" does no longer add the task "reboot" or "shutdown". The new script "fixPHPFilePermissionsAndCR" (in /m23/bin) allows that the Apache user can access the PHP scripts in /m23 and that they use the correct end of line markers for BASH. When installing a language pack, this automatically required the installation of k3b. From this version on, k3b will automatically be removed again if it has not been installed before the language pack was added. The m23 virtualbox functions were modified to be able to get status informations from all VirtualBox versions.
Bug fixesOf course, we have also fixed some (small) bugs ;-) A change to the function which suggests a free IP address (used in the "Add client" dialog) now only refers to the currently valid (and not some previously used) IP range of the m23 server. At the start of the mass installation, the debconf settings are now also replicated and the second DNS server of the model client is also added to the real clients' settings. In the file list of the package architect, the file size of files bigger than 2 Gb on 32bit m23 servers is now shown correctly. And, lastly: In the HTML version of the user manual, all quotation marks are now supposedly in their correct place ;-)
The new version is available as update from the m23 interface, via APT, as ISO file to burn the m23 server installation CD, as preinstalled virtual machine or as Raspberry Pi image file (the last three can be found in the download section).
This year, everything is different at LinuxTag in Berlin (May, 8-10): That is, almost everything, because we will be present with an m23 booth again :-)
This year's LinuxTag will no longer be located at the halls of Messe Berlin, but at STATION Berlin for the first time. Aside from the location, also the concept has changed considerably. For example, the first day of LinuxTag is also the last day of the re:publica.de 14, which also takes place at the "STATION". Linuxtag is running in parallel with the droidcon for all three days. We are already looking forward to all those visitors, who would never have stumbled about m23 otherwise :-)
Even if the booths will probably be smaller this time, we will demonstrate m23 for you and answer every single question about m23 you may have. Depending on the available space, we will take more or less of our usual decoration material and hardware to our booth ;-)
I was told, that my workshop "Administration von Debian & Co. im Textmodus" (Administration of Debian and Co in text mode) will take place on May 9, 2014 at 6:30 p.m. in the room called "Stage C", but this isn't yet announced on the official LinuxTag web site. Make a note of this if you are interested in the topic and prepare with the workshop PDF file (German), as our time seems to be limited to only one hour. The workshop was planned as a two-hour-workshop for the "Kieler Open Source und Linux Tage" (which was also quite a tight schedule), so that I will only go into the parts of the workshop you are really interested in in Berlin. Please especially take a look at the part "Workshopvorbereitungen" (workshop preparations), as we will not have the time for installing the virtual machine together.Contents of the workshop
This workshop is aimed at everyone who has to / wants to deal with Debian or Debian-based distributions (Ubuntu, Linux Mint, ...) in one way or the other. It is not important, if this is your server or desktop computer at home, the virtual server for your homepage or the computers of the enterprise you're working at.
The subject of the workshop is the administration using the command line tools: Those command line tools allow for a deeper understanding of the distribution - and, just in case - the option to administer and repair the system without a graphical interface. And of course, every administrator should have an (at least basic) understanding of the administration powers of the command line.
The topics treated in the workshop include: network configuration, software management and finding errors (and eliminating them). Of course, the practice cases "repair a broken boot manager" and the all-time classic "forgotten password" will also be part of the workshop.
The workshop is based on practical experience of 15 years of Linux- and 10 years of Debian usage.
You will need to bring: Laptop/Notebook with VirtualBox and imported Debian-Admin-Workshop-Appliance (download link in the pdf), and a working W-LAN (and possibly a network cable) and the workshop PDF file.
Have fun and maybee meet you in Berlin!
Of course, there will again be a talk about m23 at this year's CeBIT. The slightly "misty" talk bearing the title "m23 Softwareverteilung - Auch fÃ¼r die Cloud (m23 software distribution - also for the cloud" will be given on Monday, 10 March 2014, at 3:15 p.m. at the Special Conference Open Source 2014 (Hall 6, Block H01).
A live stream of this (and all the other talks) will be available at the Linux-Magazin web site, and later, the videos will be made available in their video archive. Please don't let this discourage you from being present ;-)
In my talk, I will be reporting on the new m23 version which offers support for Apache CloudStack® serving as a platform for m23, using a customer's project as an example. I'm not going to talk you into buying a "cloud" product, but instead will explain the processes in the background on the source code level. If everything works as planned, I will even show you a live demo of the m23 interface on a little m23 Raspberry Pi server.
Aside from the m23 talk, there will of course also be many other talks ;-) Information abotu all talks can be obtained at "Special Conference Open Source 2014".
I'd be delighted to also meet you before or after my talk at CeBIT. Please notify me about your wish to meet (e.g. by using the 'message to developer' box at m23.sf.net), so I can coordinate the meet-ups ;-)
Have fun and maybe we'll meet at CeBIT!
Give m23 your reference!
Send message to developer
new: CFDiskTest::nextTurn: Is
called at the beginning of the next
testing turn. Chooses a disk for
testing, if there are more disks
nged: Checks if the logical
partitions may be changed on the
given disk. If one logical
partition on the disk is assigned
to a RAID, none of the other
logical partitions may be removed
or added, because the numbering of
the partitions will change
afterwards and bring the RAID into
a faulty state.
Generates the mknod command for a
given /dev/sdX(Y) device (disk or
iceArray: Generates the mknod
commands for given /dev/sdX(Y)
devices (disks or partitions).
calls getMknodCommand and
Generates the jobs to create a
ep: Jumps back in the partition
history by one step.
Now works correctly.
: Writes the constraints for
building a RAID of a given level to
the parameter variables.
cha: CFDiskIO::isRaidComplete: Now
tionsToBuildTheRaid: Checks, if
there are enough unused partitions
to build a RAID of a given level.
m23 was updated with the m23 update manager 6585 times. All m23 files were downloaded from Sourceforge 27362 times with a total size of 7388.28 GB.